It interbreeds with the pine bunting
Yellowhammer Scientific Classification
Scientific name
Emberiza citrinella
Yellowhammer Physical Characteristics
Brown, Yellow, White
40 to 70 million
3.7 years
Top speed
25 mph
0.7 to 1.3 ounces
Yellowhammer Distribition

“Males discover tunes from their papas and establish local languages.”

The yellowhammer ( Emberiza citrinella) is a huge pennant belonging to Eurasia. It lives in completely dry, open nation locations with collections of trees and broad- varying greenery. This species is instead social, developing virginal set bonds throughout reproducing and foraging in big, blended- species groups. They sing their tunes in their distinct local languages as they rest set down on tree branches. Discover all the interesting realities concerning the yellowhammer, consisting of where it lives, what it consumes, and exactly how it acts.

5 Impressive Yellowhammer Truths

  • Yellowhammers conceal their nests in reduced shrubs to avoid nest predation.
  • It is carefully pertaining to the yearn pennant and will certainly interbreed. Their tunes likewise seem nearly the same per various other.
  • They feed their chicks grain grains to prepare them for a seed diet.
  • Males pay attention for the distinct phone calls of their competitors.
  • Their population is reducing as a result of environment damage.

Where to Locate the Yellowhammer

The yellowhammer resides in Europe and Asia in a minimum of 50 nations, consisting of Germany, France, Poland, Russia, and Italy. While they are one of the most prevalent pennant in Europe, they are missing from the Arctic areas and the high hills. A lot of populaces invest winters months in their reproducing variety, other than those in the north component of the variety, which moves southern. Some yellowhammer populaces have actually likewise been presented to South Africa, New Zealand, and the Falkland Islands. This species resides in completely dry, open nation with some greenery and trees. You can discover them in farmlands, shrublands, meadows, and woodland cleanings. Try to find them vocal singing in trees or foraging for food in big groups on the ground.

Yellowhammer Nest

Females develop their nests on or near the ground, concealing them in reduced shrubs or various other vegetation. She develops a mug utilizing plant product, such as fallen leaves and completely dry yard, and lines it with soft yard and animal hair.

Scientific Name

The yellowhammer (Emberiza citrinella) is from the Emberizidae family, that includes the pennants, a team of Old Globe passerine seed- consuming birds with conelike costs. Its Emberiza genus likewise includes the 45 species of pennants. The details name, citrinella, is the Italian word for a little yellow bird. There are 3 acknowledged subspecies of the yellowhammer.

Dimension, Appearance, Habits

The yellowhammer is a huge pennant, gauging 6.3 to 6.5 inches long and evaluating 0.7 to 1.3 ounces, with a 9 to 11.6- inch wingspan. This bird is rotund with a thick neck, a brief beak, and a lengthy tail. Men have brilliant yellow yeads and greatly spotted brownish backs, rump, and wings. Its bottoms are yellow with white external tail plumes. Females are a plain yellow with larger touches on their crowns, busts, and flanks. Juveniles are lighter in shade than both sexes and have light rumps.

This species is fairly social, developing set bonds throughout reproducing and foraging in big, blended species groups. Males discover tunes from their papas and establish a local language, however all languages are equally acknowledged. They generate a collection of brief notes which boost in quantity and end in one to 2 drawn-out notes; their tunes are nearly the same to a want pennant. Their trip is somewhat jerky, complied with by long, smooth skyrocketing. Their rate is unidentified however might rise to 25 Miles per hour.

Movement Pattern and Timing

Yellowhammers are resident to partly migratory in their variety. The European species winter season in their reproducing variety, with just the much north areas leaving throughout winter season. The Eastern species types in Russia and moves southern to winter season in Iraq, Iran, and components of Central Asia.


Yellowhammers are omnivores that forage in groups.

What Does the Yellowhammer Eat?

These birds forage on the ground in big groups, in some cases numbering the hundreds and including pennants and finches. Their diet is composed mainly of starchy seeds, plant product, and insects. They feed their chicks invertebrates and grain grains to prepare them for their hefty- seed diet. They take in plant products, such as nettle, knotgrass, chickweed, and yarrow. And they will certainly eat a variety of insects like grasshoppers, flies, beetles, spiders, snails, caterpillars, and worms.

Predators, Dangers, and Conservation Status

The IUCN notes the yellowhammer as LC or “least concern.” As a result of its considerable variety and considerable population, this species does not fulfill the “intimidated” condition limits. Nonetheless, they are believed of remaining in decrease in Europe. Their most substantial risk is environment damage from the farming sector, that includes a decrease in the farming of grain plants and the climax of farmland monitoring.

What Consumes the Yellowhammer?

Yellowhammer predators consist of sparrowhawks, minimal seen eagles, falcons, and north goshawks. This bird is a ground nester whose eggs and young are vulnerable to little animals like mice and various other rodents. Crows, jays, and magpies are likewise understood for raiding yellowhammer nests. These birds make use of bushes or shrubs as safety nesting websites, and males pay attention for the distinct tunes of possible risks and competitors.

Reproduction, Youthful, and Molting

Their reproduction period starts in April or May, and they can recreate when they get to one years of age. Yellowhammers type virginal set bonds, and males execute courtship routines, such as elevating their wings and running towards the females. Yellowhammers likewise interbreed with the yearn pennant, its closest family member. Females lay 3 to 5 white eggs with dark lines and nurture them for 12 to 2 week. Both moms and dads aid in feeding the chicks up until they fledge the nest around 11 to 13 days after hatching out. Grown-up yellowhammers generate 2 to 3 broods each year. This species has a typical life expectancy of 3.7 years however can live greater than 13.


The international yellowhammer population is approximated to number 40 to 70 million fully grown people. Europe incorporates 60% of its international variety, and its reproducing population consists of 12.8 to 19.9 million sets. In spite of its big population, its numbers are reducing at a modest price. Environment damage is believed to be the factor for its decrease.

Similar Animals:


  1. Journal of Ornithology, Springer Verlag / Thibaud Gruber, Laurent Nagle, Available here:
  2. Red List / BirdLife International, Available here:

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