The tuna has a sleek body that enables it to swim quickly through the water
Tuna Scientific Classification
Tuna Physical Characteristics
Yellow, Blue, Black, White, Silver
Up to 40 years
Top speed
50 mph
Up to 2,000lbs
Tuna Distribition

Beloved by millions of people as a culinary delight for its rich, succulent taste, the mighty tuna fish roams the world’s oceans.

Its sleek, streamlined torpedo-shaped body makes it one of the fastest fish in the world and a rather capable predator. The tuna fish is also a critical part of the world’s food supply, which has made it susceptible to overfishing.

3 Incredible Tuna Facts!

  • The tuna fish is a migratory species that has no established home range. Some species travel thousands of miles per year.
  • The tuna fish has a vast network of blood vessels in its body that always keeps the body temperature above the temperature of the surrounding water.
  • The fish can swim at speeds of more than 40 mph.

Tuna Classification and Scientific Name

The scientific name of these fish is Thunnini. This seems to derive from the Ancient Greek word for tunny fish, which in turn means to run or dart along. Thunnini is actually an example of the taxonomical classification known as a tribe, which is situated between family and genus.

The 15 Different Type of Tuna

There are some 15 species of Thunnini in the world. Most of these species belong to the genus Thunnus, the “true tuna.” The skipjack belongs to its own genus, Katsuwonus.

  • Skipjack Tuna: Although the skipjack isn’t among the true tuna species, it nevertheless has many of the hallmarks of these fish, including the same body shape, color, and appearance. As the smallest of the commercially fished species, it actually makes up much of the worldwide tuna catch.
  • Yellowfin Tuna: As the name implies, this species is covered in yellow fins, including a set of particularly long dorsal and anal fins that curve back almost to the tail.
  • Bluefin Tuna: The largest species by size, the bluefin is divided into a few different species, including the southern bluefin, Pacific bluefin, and Atlantic bluefin.
  • Albacore Tuna: Slightly larger than the skipjack, the albacore has very long pectoral side fins that reach almost the entire length of the body.

Tuna Appearance

A true spectacle in the water, this is one of the largest fishes in the world. The bluefin can grow up to an enormous 2,000 pounds (the world record for a caught fish is 1,500), but realistically most species almost never grow larger than 500 pounds. The fish is characterized by a long torpedo-shaped body tapering off to a forked or crescent tail. Most of the body is covered in smooth, shiny blue or silver metallic skin with scales adorning only certain segments. It also has small “finlets” leading up to the tail that look like little spikes.

Happy angler holding big tuna fish

Piotr Wawrzyniuk/Shutterstock.com

Tuna Distribution, Population, and Habitat

These fish shows a preference for tropical and temperate waters all over the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It occupies the pelagic zone, meaning all open oceans besides the coastline and bottom layer.

Although exact population numbers are not known, the oceans teem with millions of these fish. The annual catch is carefully managed by conservation organizations to prevent overfishing, but because of its migratory nature, this requires international cooperation.

Tuna Predators and Prey

These fish are among the top predators in the ecosystem. It keeps prey populations in check while providing an abundant meal for the few predators that do feed on it.

What does the tuna eat?

These fish feed on all manner of shellfish, squid, and many species of perciform fish. The juvenile fish also consume plankton during the first crucial stage of life.

For a full analysis on the diet’s of tuna fish, make sure to read ‘What Do Tuna Eat? Their Diet Explained.‘

What eats the tuna?

Due to its size, only the largest predators feed on adult fish, including some species of shark and whales. Seabirds and other fish species also consume the juveniles.

Tuna Reproduction and Lifespan

These fish are prolific breeders that can produce millions of eggs per year. Fertilized right in the water column of the open ocean, the eggs hatch after only a few days, although actual development to adulthood can take years. The tuna is relatively long-lived for a fish. While the yellowfin tuna only lives about seven years, some bluefin species can live up to 40 years in the wild.

Tuna in Fishing and Cooking

These fish are a cornerstone of many people’s diets and one of the most popular commercial and recreational fishes in the world. Some 4.9 million tons of tuna were caught in 2016, most of which were skipjack. This heavy reliance has led to plenty of over-exploitation. According to the International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, 13% of all tuna stocks are overfished worldwide.

Unlike the white meat of most fish, the tuna has a pink or dark red flesh thanks to the abundant quantity of oxygen-rich blood. Most of this tuna is canned light meat, but the higher quality meat can be served as sushi, sashimi, steaks, or any other fish recipe. It’s also popular in sandwiches, salads, wraps, and grilled dishes. Regardless of the recipe, this fish is abundant in nutrition such as vitamins and good fats.


  1. Britannica, Available here: https://www.britannica.com/animal/tuna-fish
  2. WWF, Available here: https://www.worldwildlife.org/species/tuna
  3. ISSF, Available here: https://iss-foundation.org/state-of-tuna-stocks-worldwide-assessed-in-comprehensive-issf-report-2

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